How To Save Money On Your Heating Bills

How much do you think you spend on your heating bills at present? According to the Energy Saving Trust, on average half the money spent on utility bills in the UK goes towards heating and hot water.

Is it therefore any surprise that come the first sign of winter, many households have the same debate rumbling on, whether to put the heating on. But, did you know that by taking precautionary steps, you can reduce your energy bills at the same time as keeping your home warm. Five top tips we recommend are…

Make an Extra Layer Your First Choice:

Many of us opt to switch the heating on the moment that we feel a chill in the home. Automatically reaching for the heating will cause your energy bills to rocket. Instead, your first option should be to make an extra layer of clothing your first choice to keeping warm.

Have Your Boiler Serviced Annually:

As with all appliances within the home, general usage can take its toll on your boiler. This wear and tear will leave your boiler performing below its optimum level, hindering its efficiency and costing you more in energy bills.

To reduce the risk of wear and tear on your boiler, you should have it serviced annually. Ideally the service should take place before winter takes hold.

Along with getting your boiler serviced, it’s also recommended to install a CO2 alarm next to the boiler.

Bleed Your Radiators:

If you’ve put your heating on and found that the top of your radiator is cooler than the bottom, then you’ll need to bleed them. This isn’t a difficult task, nor is it time consuming. But it is one which should be carried out at the earliest opportunity to save you money on your energy bills.

To bleed your radiators, all you’ll need is a radiator key and a towel.

With your heating off, use the radiator key to turn the valve at the top of the radiator to release any trapped air. Whilst doing this, hold the towel just below the valve to catch any water which may trickle out. As soon as water appears, close the valve.

Set TRVs Low:

Many modern radiators come with TRVs, which enable you to set the temperature of the individual radiator. Whilst many of us will turn the TRV to six, this will cost you money without heating the room any quicker.

To help save money on your energy bills, set the TRV to its lowest setting, before gradually turning them up until you find a comfortable room temperature. It’s also recommend to keep the TRVs on a low setting in rooms which aren’t frequented often. This will help keep the room warm without wasting heat.

Utilise Natural Heat:

OK, so the sun isn’t as strong during the winter months, it can still provide the required warmth to naturally heat your home. To make the most out of the natural warmth from the sun, leave your curtains open during the day, and closed during the evening.

Along with closing your curtains during the evening, it’s also a good idea to keep internal doors closed where possible.

These five simple steps will help you to save money on your heating and energy bills, at the same time as keeping the house warm. But, for those who are looking for an additional heat source there are a number of portable radiators available which will provide the heating requirements you need.

Out of Home Advertising Spotlight – Truckside Advertising

Truckside advertising campaigns are used to broaden the reach of a national, regional or local campaign. They add variety, frequency and value to a broadcast campaign or can stand alone as very efficient campaigns.

For those trying to "go green," truckside advertising is a great, though often overlooked, alternative to mobile billboards. Truckside ads are posted on working trucks that will be out regardless, while mobile billboards are on trucks that operate solely for advertising purposes.

Benefits of the Medium –

Truckside advertising can be used as a broad branding medium or as a target-specific medium (such as retail trading zone areas). If advertisers want to add a bit more to their truckside campaign, event promotional options can make great additions.

Truckside advertising is not bound to any demographic market or geographic location, so the reach is endless. This mobility allows for coverage where other types of OOH may not be available.

Truckside also provides the option of a national mass reach campaign, known as "Over the Road". This flexibility in campaign execution makes truckside advertising appealing to both large national companies and smaller companies alike.

Many national advertisers learned on the concept years ago when trying to get their brands in front of consumers in a timely, efficient manner. Truckside easily accomplishes that task because of mobility – an advertiser's message can travel from New York to Los Angeles on one media vehicle. Plus, posting full-color graphics to trailers allows for greater impact.

How It is Purchased –

* An advertiser can buy General Market GRP showing levels.

* An advertiser can purchase dedicated routes to reach specific demographic targets or geographic areas. These smaller routers make it an efficient medium for local and regional companies.

* "Over the Road" advertising can be used as a mass medium to reach markets across the US by purchasing a campaign along Interstate routes. It can also be used for regional coverage.

Markets Available –

Market availability is unlimited. About 95% of the US population can be reached using truckside advertising .

How it is Measured & New Technology –

Tracking systems (such as GPS) have been available for a number of years. However, new companies have emerged that measure audience circulation, impressions during a certain period, and other types of campaign auditing. Some fleet media companies offer online Internet systems allowing advertisers to pinpoint the location of their mobile fleet ads in real time. Some services can also provide data that can be interfaced with other databases to produce demographics by route, fleet or time of day.

SAMI (Satellite Automated Media Information) web-based technology, for instance, addresses the needs of agencies and advertisers by providing credibility through audience measurement and tracking. It allows advertisers to schedule, track, sell and audit their truckside advertising campaigns. Proof-of-performance reporting is available next day, including maps and digital photos. One company currently offering SAMI technology is Moving Images Media, with truckside advertising available everywhere in the US

Simferopol, the Capital of Crimea – Simferopol City Guide

Simferopol is known as the capital and biggest city of Crimea. Every year millions of tourists go through this city to the Crimean resorts, such as Yalta, Sevastopol and Evpatoria. Today Crimea belongs to Ukraine and is its most southern region. After the collapse of the USSR in 1991, former Soviet Republics declared their independence, new countries emerged and Ukraine was one of them.

Simferopol is a pretty old, ancient city. Different civilizations occupied the area where the city is now situated over centuries. Finally, the city of Simferopol was founded by Russians in 1885. In old Greek Simferopol means a city of common good, or city-collector. The city was involved in many wars and battles during its long history. During the Second World War the Crimean region was tormented by the Nazi Germany. They took occupation of the city and used it as a strong base to withstand many attacks. Really, the history of this city is so rich! There is a number of historical attractions and artifacts which makes Simferopol a popular tourist destination for many tourists visiting it every year.

At present the total population of Simferopol is reported to be around four hundred thousand people. Administratively, the city is divided into 3 divisions. Due to its central location on the Crimean peninsula, it is a convenient place for many industries and facilities. Food and engineering industries are the two key ones that were developed in the city years ago, in the Soviet time. However more business is being established here today and the economics of the city keeps growing.

Simferopol has always been a cultural and educational center of the Crimea region. There are several Universities and many more colleges in the city. It is not surprising that Simferopol is called a student city sometimes. This city is also known with its famous theaters, such as the Crimean Academic Russian Drama Theater, Simferopol Puppet Theater and Crimean Ukrainian Music Theater. The city’s main public transport system consists of trolleys and buses that run throughout the city and connect the central area with suburbs. The Simferopol International Airport in the only one in Crimea. Different Ukrainian and international airlines have daily flights to Simferopol from Kiev, Moscow, Istanbul, and in summertime Simferopol is also connected with Germany, Israel, Armenia, Latvia, Uzbekistan and other countries. The majority of tourists get to Simferopol by train through. This transportation remains the most popular one in Ukraine due to affordable prices and a decent level of comfort the trains provide.

Since Simferopol is the capital of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city is responsible for the administrative duties related to the special administrative status of Crimea within Ukraine. The Parliament of Crimea as well as the Cabinet of Ministers and other administrative institutions of the Crimean Republic are situated in Simferopol. Although Crimea has the status of a republic, the Crimean Parliament is subordinate to the Supreme Parliament of Ukraine which is situated in Kiev, the capital city of Ukraine.

Today Simferopol is a political, administrative, educational and cultural center of Crimea and of the whole Southern region of Ukraine as well as a popular tourist destination.

Financial Reporting & Auditing in Singapore

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the national body representing the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a register of qualified accountants comprising mainly local graduates. Membership is open to members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a number of other accounting bodies. Generally, prior to being admitted as a full member, they must attend a week-long pre-admission course. Members are designated as certified public accountants (CPA).

The Public Accountants Board, whose council members are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who wish to practise. It also handles practice monitoring, disciplinary matters and regulations on professional conduct.

Accounting Records in Singapore

All companies incorporated under the Companies Act are required to maintain books of accounts that sufficiently explain the transactions and financial position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company’s registered office or at another place the directors think fit. If the books are maintained outside Singapore, sufficient records must be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the preparation and/or audit of financial statements that reflect accurately the company’s financial position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Commencing before 1 January 2003 The principal source of accounting principles in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are essentially International Accounting Standards (IAS) modified for certain transitional provisions. They provide guidelines on the accounting measurements and disclosure requirements. Businesses may depart from such standards if the standards conflict with disclosure exemptions granted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may take disciplinary action against any of its members who are in violation of the standards.

Rules on accounting measurements are generally established by SAS and INT. Disclosure requirements are governed by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a member of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the institute supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for observance during presentation of audited financial statements and promoting worldwide acceptance of such standards.

Financial Periods Commencing on or after 1 January 2003 With the implementation of section 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be used with effect from annual financial periods commencing on or after 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are essentially adopted from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The previous SAS were adopted from the same set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to certain transitional provisions. Consequently, there are differences between FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are authoritative guidance on the application of the relevant standards. CCDG adopted all international interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with effect from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a statutory requirement whereby any non-compliance amounts to a breach of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of financial statements, made up to not more than six months before every Annual General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. Generally if a company incorporated in Singapore has one or more subsidiaries, it must prepare consolidated financial statements unless it meets certain criteria as provided for in FRS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Currently, financial statements under the Companies Act consist of the balance sheet, income statement together with explanatory notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 coming into operation for financial periods on or after 1 January 2003, a complete set of financial statements will comprise the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash flow statement and explanatory notes.

The financial statements must be accompanied by the directors’ and auditors’ reports and by a statement from the directors declaring that the financial statements show a true and fair view and that it is reasonable to believe that the company can reasonably pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which meet specific provisions in the Companies Act may be exempt from having their accounts audited but nevertheless must prepare financial statements that comply with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the provisions in the Act, to appoint one or more auditors qualified for appointment under the Accountants Act to report on the company’s financial statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether proper books of accounts have been kept and whether the financial statements agree with the company’s records. They will then report on the trueness and fairness of the financial statements to the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the financial year beginning on or after 15 May 2003, the following companies are no longer required to have their accounts audited. However, they are still required to prepare accounts (and consolidated accounts where applicable) that comply with FRS.

o Small exempt private companies An exempt private company with revenue in a financial year below S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from audit requirements. Revenue is defined according to the statutory accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Dormant companies A dormant company is exempted from appointing auditors and from the audit requirements if it has been dormant either (a) from the time of its formation or (b) since the end of the previous financial year. A company is considered dormant during a period in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the company ceases to be dormant on the occurrence of such a transaction. For this purpose, transactions arising from the following are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the company by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Appointment of company secretary
  • Appointment of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or default penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies