Financial Reporting & Auditing in Singapore

The Accounting Profession of Singapore

The Institute of Certified Public Accountants of Singapore (ICPAS) is the national body representing the accounting profession in Singapore. It maintains a register of qualified accountants comprising mainly local graduates. Membership is open to members of the Institutes of Chartered Accountants of England and Wales, Australia, Scotland, Ireland and a number of other accounting bodies. Generally, prior to being admitted as a full member, they must attend a week-long pre-admission course. Members are designated as certified public accountants (CPA).

The Public Accountants Board, whose council members are appointed by the Ministry of Finance, licenses and registers accountants who wish to practise. It also handles practice monitoring, disciplinary matters and regulations on professional conduct.

Accounting Records in Singapore

All companies incorporated under the Companies Act are required to maintain books of accounts that sufficiently explain the transactions and financial position of the company.

The books may be kept either at the company’s registered office or at another place the directors think fit. If the books are maintained outside Singapore, sufficient records must be maintained in Singapore to facilitate the preparation and/or audit of financial statements that reflect accurately the company’s financial position.

Sources of Accounting Principles

Financial Periods Commencing before 1 January 2003 The principal source of accounting principles in Singapore, namely Statements of Accounting Standards (SAS) and Interpretation of Statements of Accounting Standards (INT), are issued by ICPAS. These standards are essentially International Accounting Standards (IAS) modified for certain transitional provisions. They provide guidelines on the accounting measurements and disclosure requirements. Businesses may depart from such standards if the standards conflict with disclosure exemptions granted by law. Otherwise, ICPAS may take disciplinary action against any of its members who are in violation of the standards.

Rules on accounting measurements are generally established by SAS and INT. Disclosure requirements are governed by SAS, INT and the Companies Act.

ICPAS is a member of the International Accounting Standards Committee (IASC). Compliance with IASC standards are not mandatory, but the institute supports the IASC objectives of formulating and publishing standards for observance during presentation of audited financial statements and promoting worldwide acceptance of such standards.

Financial Periods Commencing on or after 1 January 2003 With the implementation of section 37 of the Companies (Amendment) Act 2002, SAS issued by ICPAS will not be used with effect from annual financial periods commencing on or after 1 January 2003. Instead, Singapore Financial Reporting Standards (FRS), issued by the new accounting standards-setting body, the Council on Corporate Disclosure and Governance (CCDG), are now effective. FRS are essentially adopted from International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The previous SAS were adopted from the same set of IFRS (formerly referred to as IAS) but with modification to certain transitional provisions. Consequently, there are differences between FRS and SAS.

Interpretations of Standards are authoritative guidance on the application of the relevant standards. CCDG adopted all international interpretations as Interpretations of FRS (INT FRS) with effect from financial periods beginning on or after 1 January 2003.

Compliance with FRS is a statutory requirement whereby any non-compliance amounts to a breach of the Companies Act by the directors.

Financial Reporting in Singapore

The Companies Act requires that an audited set of financial statements, made up to not more than six months before every Annual General Meeting, is to be presented to the shareholders at the meeting. Generally if a company incorporated in Singapore has one or more subsidiaries, it must prepare consolidated financial statements unless it meets certain criteria as provided for in FRS 27 Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements. Currently, financial statements under the Companies Act consist of the balance sheet, income statement together with explanatory notes. With the Companies (Accounting Standards) Regulations 2002 coming into operation for financial periods on or after 1 January 2003, a complete set of financial statements will comprise the balance sheet, income statement, statement of changes in equity, cash flow statement and explanatory notes.

The financial statements must be accompanied by the directors’ and auditors’ reports and by a statement from the directors declaring that the financial statements show a true and fair view and that it is reasonable to believe that the company can reasonably pay its debts as they become due.

Companies which meet specific provisions in the Companies Act may be exempt from having their accounts audited but nevertheless must prepare financial statements that comply with the Companies Act.

Annual Requirements for Companies in Singapore

The Companies Act requires every company, except for those exempted in accordance with the provisions in the Act, to appoint one or more auditors qualified for appointment under the Accountants Act to report on the company’s financial statements. The auditors are to ascertain whether proper books of accounts have been kept and whether the financial statements agree with the company’s records. They will then report on the trueness and fairness of the financial statements to the shareholders at the Annual General Meeting.

Audit Exemption Starting with the financial year beginning on or after 15 May 2003, the following companies are no longer required to have their accounts audited. However, they are still required to prepare accounts (and consolidated accounts where applicable) that comply with FRS.

o Small exempt private companies An exempt private company with revenue in a financial year below S$5m is exempted from appointing auditors and from audit requirements. Revenue is defined according to the statutory accounting standards, i.e. the FRS.

o Dormant companies A dormant company is exempted from appointing auditors and from the audit requirements if it has been dormant either (a) from the time of its formation or (b) since the end of the previous financial year. A company is considered dormant during a period in which no accounting transaction occurs, and the company ceases to be dormant on the occurrence of such a transaction. For this purpose, transactions arising from the following are disregarded:

  • Taking of shares in the company by a subscriber to the memorandum
  • Appointment of company secretary
  • Appointment of auditor
  • Maintenance of a registered office
  • Keeping of registers and books
  • Fees, fines or default penalties paid to the Registrar of Companies

How To Fix Sputtering Marketing

Is your marketing generating a steady stream of sales leads?

If not, ask yourself this question: Do you have a marketing plan?

You may know what your business goals and objectives are. And you probably have a website and some advertising. But without a game plan, your marketing activities are reduced to a few unconnected activities that are unquestionably to produce the results you want.

A marketing plan helps you tie all your marketing activities together and keeps you focused so that you can create a roadmap that will lead you to your objectives.

And a simple, one-page marketing plan will take you a lot further than no marketing plan at all.

So what should your plan be based on? You can start with these basics:

1. Identify Your Marketing Goals

What specifically does your marketing need to achieve for your business to thrive? How many new leads do you need each week? What percentage of those leads do you need to convert to sales? What is your revenue target?

2. Create A Marketing Strategy

Take a look at your goals. Now what is your overall approach and position in relation to your goals and competition. My marketing strategy uses an educational approach. By providing people with useful information and ideas, I get an opportunity to demonstrate the value I provide and establish my credibility.

3. Set Up Your Marketing System

Create an action plan. Tie all your marketing activities together into a system that reflects your marketing strategy. The idea is to have everything working together as one.

4. Creation And Implementation Of Your Marketing Activities

Now that you have identified what your marketing activities will be, it's time to take each marketing activity and figure out who will create and implement it and when.

5. Fine Tune Your Marketing Tools

Your marketing activities require the use of one or more marketing tools. These include your website, your marketing messages and things like article marketing. To get your prospect's attention, you need to ensure your marketing tools are really ready to cut through all the marketing noise.

Creating a written plan may seem intimidating but as you can see, you should be able to hammer out the basics in a few hours.

Ways People With No Money Can Make Easy Money Online

If you are reading this article, you are among the millions of people worldwide who are searching for ways people with no money can make easy money online and a better life. How do I know this? Because you have come to the realization that the more money you have, the better life you can create for yourself. If you have enough money you can pay your debts down, buy a home, buy a car, travel, put money away for retirement, save money for your children's college and so much more.

Without plenty of money you might find yourself in debt, following multitudes of bills. Without a reliable source of income you can not take care of your loved ones, feed them well and provide such simple needs as clothing, school materials and and more.

Fortunately there are ways for people with no money can make easy money online. This possibility takes some time and effort, but after learning certain skills a person can make anywhere from an extra $ 5.00 per day to $ 100 or more.

There are several ways for people with no money can make easy money online such as article marketing, classified advertising and forum marketing to name a few. Each of these ways is available to the budding entrepreneur for free; all you need is a starting point or guide. Some ways that people typically start is through such free methods as article marketing, forum marketing and classified advertising. Each of these methods can be very effective at targeting audiences on the Internet and getting them to purchase a product or service.

This is, of course, the next important aspect of making money online. You need a product or service which can be purchased online. There are many places to find products that you can market for free and make a commission on. Some responsibilities are as little as a few dollars, where others might be several hundred of dollars.

Make Money With Niche Marketing

You can have a good income with niche marketing, but you will have to do a certain amount of work each month to keep the site up to date.

It is interesting that many people try to start their online business by selling products on how to make money online when they are not successful themselves. But there is a lot of money to make online when you start to work in non Internet Marketing niches.

The best way to earn a good income is to have either a website or a blog which you host on your own website. That way you can have total control on what you include.

Once you have decided on your niche, you need to either write your own content or have some written for you. Then you need to have some products to promote.

Now you might think this is harder to do than it actually is. Stop, and think for a moment, if you are careful about your weight, how many diet books you have bought. You may have bought many that you have never read. But anyone with a weight problem will buy every diet book in the hope to find that secret diet tip that will get them slim overnight or in a short time without any work.

When a person is passionate about a subject, they will be ready to buy anything that will further their knowledge in that niche. Time and time again, people are doing this offline, and they will not change their habits because it is now online.

It may take time for them to build up confidence in you and your site, but with good quality information they will soon be aware of how trustworthy you are.

Within your niche you will learn other areas that people want, and will be able to promote those items as well. As you develop your niche site, you will be able to move into more and more products, and you will find that you are able to earn more and more money online.

Once you have a good plan, start created as many niche sites as you can, while maintaining a high quality standard. It's OK to start off small. If you can create one 5-page niche site a week, you will be doing very well.

There is money to be made through niche marketing but like any business online you will need to do some work.